What are the successful attempts music festivals made to be eco-friendly and sustainable? 可持續及環保的音樂節?

(Article was written in English and translated into Chinese for the purpose of this blog) (原文是英文,為了這個博客翻譯成中文)

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Go to the IG for full picture
進入 IG 參考全圖

A picture of the aftermath at the main stage at Clockenflap 2014, Hong Kong’s Music & Arts Festival. Used plastic cups were discarded all over the site, creating the plastic waste epidemic during the 3 days annual festival. Photo by Kate Fung
2014年 Clockenflap完場照,塑料杯被丟棄遍布現場,一年一度三天的的音樂節製造了大量廢料。圖片由 Kate Fung

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Typical festival aftermath, Glastonbury 2011 by Mark Large
典型的節日後遺症
Trash: plastic water bottles and soda cups and greasy styrofoam.
垃圾:塑料水瓶和蘇打杯和油膩的泡沫塑料。

Festival aftermaths were covered in trash, from small items (glowsticks, plastic water bottles, broken sunglasses and plastic bags) to the big stuff (tents, coolers, sleeping bags and tables).[1] The music industry has indeed come under fire in recent years for the huge amount of plastic waste it generates at outdoor concerts and festivals. According to EarthTalk, the 2015 Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival in Tennessee generated 679 tons of waste over just four days.[2] The amount of plastic wasted and environmental damages during the Clockenflap Festival in Hong Kong was not even reported. There were no measurements from the organizers to encourage such initiatives. The price of cleanup is a huge weight on a music festival’s budget, and in return, leads to the price of tickets going up as well. Either expensive trash removal companies or cleanup crews are left with the challenge of collecting mass amounts of garbage and dismantling tents for the landfill.
節日後遺症場地滿佈垃圾,從小型項目(熒光棒,塑料水瓶,破墨鏡和塑料袋),以至大的東西(帳篷,冷卻器,睡袋和檯[1]。由於近年來戶外音樂會產生的廢塑料數量巨大,因此音樂行業確實備受指責。根據 EarthTalk,2015年美國田納西州的波納羅音樂節在短短四天產生679噸廢棄物。[2]  香港Clockenflap甚至沒有報告音樂節期間浪費的塑料和對環境的損害,目前主辦方還沒有任何環保政策。大量垃圾為垃圾搬運公司及清理人員帶來挑戰,清理廢棄物本身是音樂節龐大的預算,簡接導致票價上升。

Trentmann argued that festivalgoers expect more than purely music or the products.[3] They expect inspirations from art, culture, fashion…etc. It’s the experience that they are so look forward to which cannot be satisfied by merely watching live stream alone at home. The environmental damages it made certainly destroy the festival experience as a whole.
Trentmann 認為 festivalgoers 期望的不是純粹音樂或產品。[3] 他們希望從藝術,文化,時尚…等汲取靈感。他們需要整個音樂節帶來的滿足體驗,與透過在家中串流獨自觀看實時表演不同,對環境損害必然破壞整個音樂節的體驗。

Making music festivals more sustainable is not an easy problem to address but small initiatives. First, environment protection must start from encouraging behavioral changes. Measurement that is related to the audience directly and what’s in it for them. Would that make it easier or cheaper for festivalgoers to make more sustainable choices? Secondly, reducing negative human impacts required environmental resources management and environmental-friendly chemical engineering. Acknowledgement of this issue by the industry has resulted in actions by fans, bands and entire festivals.
一小步也可以使音樂節更加可持續發展,環境保護必須從鼓勵與他們有密切關係的行為改變開始。例如環保的措施會否更便宜及方便 festivalgoers?其次,減少人類負面行為對環境影響需要資源管理和環保化學工程,這措施應得到業界例如歌迷,樂隊和整個音樂節的確認,

Fujirock Festival is a successful example to protect the environment and promote sustainability in the long term. Reducing the ecological footprint of Fuji Rock is a big focus of the festival organizers.
富士搖滾音樂節是可持續發展的一個成功範例,減少生態足跡是組織者的一大焦點。

 

Relief efforts in FujiRock ‘Festival Echo’ [4]
富士搖滾音樂節“音樂節迴聲”[4]

Festival organizers had provided vendors with wooden silverware, chopsticks and food containers to ensure a minimum footprint. Plastic bags, bottle, beer cup are made from recycled plastic bottles from last year’s festival. Cutlery is made from bamboo and wood and also recycled from last year. All silverware and chopsticks provided by food vendors were wooden, and had their own special bin. Attendances must bring plastic bags for their garbage. Smokers must bring their own portable ashtrays. Toilet rolls are made from recycled paper cups from last year’s festival.
音樂節組織者提供的木製餐具,筷子和食品容器,以確保最小的足跡。塑料包裝袋,瓶,啤酒杯從去年的音樂節回收塑料瓶製成。餐具是由竹子和木頭做的,也從去年的回收製成。食品供應商提供所有的餐具和筷子是木製的,並且有自己指定的回收筒。參與者必須自備垃圾膠袋,吸煙者必須自備便攜式煙灰缸,衛生紙從去年音樂節的紙杯再生紙製作。

Waste Diversion and the recycling program
廢物轉移和回收計劃

There were approximately 40 makeshift kiosks scattered around the venue for recycling and sorting.  Each was manned by at least four people at any given time, and there were an intimidatingly large number of different categories of trash.  Invite volunteers at the site to ensure that audiences are sorting the right disposable items in the right recycling bins. Cans were separate from plastic bottles.  And before you placed a bottle into its receptacle, you were instructed to tear the wrapper from it, and insert the wrapper into a separate bin. Bottle caps, the bottle labels and the bottle itself are disposed separately into dedicated bins. The organizers collect these plastic “wastes” and recreate them into bottles, staff jackets for next year’s festival. There were also separate categories depending on the type of food container, as well as a compost bin.
場地不同角落內有40臨時亭進行回收和分類,每個由至少四人義工隊負責,並同時負責分類大量不同種類的垃圾的。在現場邀請志願者,以確保觀眾的分類正確,罐頭跟塑料瓶分開。回收瓶子時要撕開包裝,分開瓶蓋並放置到專用箱。主辦方收集這些“廢”塑料,並將其再生成瓶子,為明年音樂節使用。

Untitled.pngVolunteers are rewarded with special gifts. 志願者獲特別的禮物獎勵。

Renewable Energy 再生能源

Electricity for the chilled-out alternative stage with a capacity of 1000, is generated from bio diesel and solar power to tackle CO2. Bio Diesel Fuel (BDF), recycled from used cooking oil, has been used for powering the Avalon, Field Of Heaven, and Board Walk areas. Audiences mostly bring along their own solar power charger.
能容納一千人的副台是利用生物柴油和太陽能發電, 減少二氧化碳排放。生物柴油(BDF),從用過的食用油循環再用,為不同區域如 Avalon,Field of Heaven 和 Board Walk 供電,觀眾大多攜帶太陽能充電器。

Board Walk 板城

Fuji Rock Festival has worked in collaboration with local people in Naeba to construct the “BOARD WALK” that makes wheel chair users possible to enjoy a stroll through the woods. The very organic 1.4km long path was built since 2002 from the wood that’s recycled from last year’s cutlery. Volunteer’s were invited to draw or sign on a piece of wood that they helped recycled and making their own signature art piece for the path.
富士搖滾音樂節已經協同當地人民曾在苗場建設“BOARD WALK”,讓輪椅使用者可以享受在樹林中漫步。1.4公里長的路徑是自2002年以來用餐具回收而來的木材而建,參與興建的志願者被邀請在木頭上繪畫及為路徑簽名。

 

Besides Fujirock Festival, more music festivals recognized the importance of managing the environmental resources such as cell-phone charging bikes, mini gym that creates the energy for the sound system and screens in Coachella.[5] Plates, bowls, and silverware made of durable bamboo in Pickathon. Outside Lands Festival achieved 88% waste diversion rate. Coachella has 45-foot-tall wind-powered clock tower, 10-for-1 bottle recycling reward and a TRASHed Art of Recycling program that invite artists to redesign a recycling bin into an artistic masterpiece…etc. Even Stages are being made from recycles materials in The Lighting In a Bottle Festival.
除了富士搖滾音樂節,其他音樂節也意識管理環境資源的重要性,如 Coachella  提供手機充電自行車,小型健身房能供電給音響系統和屏幕;[5] 在 Pickathon,盤,碗,和銀器由耐用的竹子造成;Outside Lands Festival 的垃圾分流率是 88%;Coachella 有45英尺高的風力發電樓丶10換1瓶回收獎勵丶TRASHed Art of Recycling 邀請藝術家重新設計回收筒為藝術傑作…等;The Lighting In a Bottle Festival 表演台用再循環物料製造。

 

Music Festival used to be a great way to deliver message for good cause and common ideal. While the grooviest festival in music history, Woodstock 1969, promoted Peace and Music, Live Aid raised money for famine relief. Music festivals nowadays are more commercial as they become the big income for the music industry. Yet it’s rare to hear that music festival nowadays promote the wellbeing, culture or social value. Therefore, let’s regain the heritage and mission that was once built by the music industry, whether it’s promoting artistic expression, community engagement or ecological sustainability.
音樂節曾經是傳遞共同的理想的平台,1969年胡士托促進和平與音樂丶Live Aid 籌集資金救濟飢荒……等等。音樂節如今更加商業化,成為音樂產業的主要收益,然而現在很少聽到音樂節推廣這些文化和社會價值。因此,無論是推廣藝術表達丶社區參與或生態可持續性,讓我們重拾音樂節建構的遺產和使命。

 

Remarks: It’s a homework that received surprisingly good grades and comments:
“Well informed, well articulated research issue; demonstrable skills in relevant research practices; able to provide a developed rationale for choice of research methodology.”
“Evidence of analysis which potentially contributes new ideas, processes or knowledge to the field or is ground breaking in a way that would be recognized as valid by experts in the field.”
“Takes full responsibility for own learning and development through iterative cycles of well articulated purposeful analysis and planning, supported by extensive evidence.”

備註:這份功課收到出乎意料的好成績和評價:

“Well informed (唔識譯),明確闡述研究問題;在相關研究實踐具有論證的技能;能夠為研究方法提供了一個合理的闡譯。”

“具實證的分析並為該領域貢獻新的想法,嶄新的見解而該領域的專家會確認為有效。”

“承擔自己的學習和發展,通過大量的證據支持,明確闡述目的,反覆分析和規劃。”

註:

[1] Moore, T., (July 14, 2014) Festival season: how to encourage sustainable behaviour among campers, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/estival-season-waste-emissions-transport-sustainable-behaviour
[2] McReynolds, J., (June 11, 2016) Musicians and Music Festival Go Green, Earth Talk, http://earthtalk.org/musicians-music-festivals-go-green/
[3] Trentmann, F., (2016) Empire of Things: How we Became a World of Consumers, from the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First, pp.685
[4] http://www.smash-uk.com/frf13/stages/facility.html#stage05
[5] Jules, A., (2015), Five Best Environmental Friendly Festival, AXS, https://www.axs.com/news/five-best-environmentally-friendly-festivals-49181
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